Posts Tagged ‘Incarnation


a son is given…

Mark’s gospel is often said to portray Jesus as the one who comes not to be served but serve (Mk 10:45). If this is true then it is understandable that there is no account of his birth; the origin of one who serves is of little consequence; Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God (Mk 1;1) but is so as one who serves (the rest of the chapter is Jesus strenuously serving), indeed as God’s suffering servant (as the gospel goes on to demonstrate).

John too says little of his birth. He sums up the birth in the terse and pregnant words, ‘the Word became flesh’.  For John, Jesus is above all the incarnate God.  His origins are not in Bethlehem but from everlasting; in the beginning when all came into being the Word already existed.  He is not made but is the Maker of all things (Jn 1:1-5).  He is the Son who images and exposits God in the fullest sense (he that has seen me has seen the Father) for he is God (Jn 1:1).

Luke’s gospel stresses that Jesus is the Saviour of the World.  Jesus is, to be sure the  Jewish Messianic Son of God (Lk 1:35) but his deliverance is for all.  He is ‘a light to lighten the gentiles’ and proclaims a gospel that is for ‘all nations’ (Lk 13:10).  He is the mysterious Son of Man, a title that stretches his domain beyond Israel embracing the wider stream of humanity (Ps 8). Thus his genealogy stretches back to Adam; Jesus is ‘the son of Adam, the son of God’ (Lk 3:38).  Adam, God’s son, failed.  But a new son arrived, the last Adam, the second man, and in this son God finds unadulterated delight (Lk 3:22). He will bear and display the divine image, in a way that excels that of Adam.

Matthew’s concerns are more specifically Jewish.  Matthew wishes to show that Jesus, the Son, is the fulfilment of Jewish promise.  Jesus is Messiah, the son of David (Matt 1:1) and thus the son of promise, Abraham’s son (Matt 1:1).  His genealogy is traced through three sets of fourteen generations, from Abraham to David, from David, to the exile and from the exile to the Christ (Matt 1:17).  Matthew’s point is that with the coming of Jesus the Messiah who would deliver his people had arrived.  In one sense the exile had finished many years before but in another sense it hadn’t.  The people were still in bondage, not merely to Rome but to powers much more enslaving and destructive. All previous Davidic sons had failed, hence the exile. But this son of David will not fail. Messiah, David’s son, had arrived, to save ‘his people’ from their sins (Matt 1:21).  All God’s promises will find their realization (their Yes and Amen) in him.  He is Jesus, the Lord saves. He is Immanuel, God with his people in blessing and salvation, and with them in a more profound and immediate sense than had been expected.  In him, all exile is over and, in him, God’s Kingdom arrives for God, the divine King, has arrived.

The gospels invite us to see the refracted glory of God in the Christ.  They invite not simply admiration and amazement but adoration and worship.  Mark’s gospel concerns ‘the Son of God’ (1:1) but a Son who serves as Mark indicates by the conflating of two OT texts (this is my son… in whom I delight) the former refers to the Davidic king-son and the latter to Isaiah’s servant who will not fail (Mk 1:11; Isa 42:1). Davidic kings were God’s sons (and servants).  Israel was God’s son (and servant).  Adam was God’s son (and servant). Christ is the rightful heir of all; all promised to them is inherited by him for where they failed he will triumph.  He is ‘son’ in all these senses and is ‘Son’ in a sense that eclipses all; he is Immanuel, and those with eyes to see beheld in him the Shekinah glory that dwelt in the tabernacle and temple, the glory of the Only Son with a Father, the one of whom John the Baptist said, ‘he is preferred before me for he was before me.’ As with manna and vine the anti-type surpasses the type, the fulfilment exceeds the promise; Jesus is son ‘par excellence’, the Ultimate Son, son not simply in a granted and nominated sense, but in an intrinsic and essential sense; his Sonship is not merely honorific but inherent, not titular but trinitarian.  He is not only the Ultimate Son but also the Unique Son, God-the-Son (the Only Son).  He is the image of the invisible God and divine fulness dwells in him bodily.  Failure is impossible and worship is mandatory.  And so it is said, ‘let all the angels of God worship him’ (Hebs 1). And we may say, not angels only, and wise men, and shepherds, but the whole of creation, since ‘for him are all things’ (Col 1:16).

We may add that the gospel that begins by announcing the arrival of Immanuel (God with us) ends with Immanuel himself in resurrection power and authority declaring to his disciples, ‘lo I am with you always even to the end of the age’ (Matt 28)  for to Jesus, declared to be Son of God in power in resurrection, God himself says,

‘“Your throne, O God, is forever and ever, the sceptre of uprightness is the sceptre of your kingdom. You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness; therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness beyond your companions.”


“You, Lord, laid the foundation of the earth in the beginning, and the heavens are the work of your hands; they will perish, but you remain; they will all wear out like a garment, like a robe you will roll them up, like a garment they will be changed. But you are the same, and your years will have no end.” (Hebs 1)


incarnation… the word became flesh

John 1:14; And the Word became flesh…

I wonder if we grasp just how repugnant incarnation was to the Hellenized (Greek-influenced) world in which it took place.  To imagine God who is spirit becoming part of the material universe was shocking to a culture steeped in dualism.  Right-thinking and sophisticated people knew the material universe was of a lesser substance than God.  It was created by a demi-urge, an inferior being, and for God to be involved in some way with it was unthinkable.  Yet, John does not try to make palatable the unfortunate fact of the incarnation, rather he presents it in language that is as bold and uncompromising – the Word became flesh. It is not simply that the Word entered humanity, or adopted a human form, or inhabited a human body – all a little more ambiguous and less distasteful to C1 sensibilities – but John will not fudge to be fashionable, instead he will state the truth in its starkest and most objectionable vulgar reality – the word became flesh. Flesh, is humanity in all its vulnerability, weakness, and biological grubby earthiness, and it is this flesh (sin apart) that the Word who was God (Jn 1;1) took when he became a man; he gave this flesh for the sin of the world (Jn 6:51; Hebs 10:20), and in resurrection took human flesh (for a spirit, a mere phantom, has not flesh and bones as the disciples saw him to have in resurrection Lk 24:39) into heaven and the immediate presence of God.  Indeed, it is only by feeding on this flesh and blood, an idea repulsive to Jewish and Hellenistic sensibilities, that eternal life is to be found (Jn 6:54.  Cf. 1 Jn 4:2)

From the outset the story of Christianity was profoundly counter-cultural.  The gospel always confounds the wisdom of the wise.  Why therefore, in our age, do we imagine  that only if it is made culturally palatable it will be believed? Why-oh-why are we so afraid to boldly and unambiguously proclaim its counter-cultural realities today?


the shadow of the cross

To identify with Jesus creates a divide between two opposing worlds.  Even before his birth this divide was signalled.  An angel came to Mary, a virgin betrothed to Joseph, and said,

Luke 1:28-33 (ESV)
“Greetings, O favored one, the Lord is with you!” But she was greatly troubled at the saying, and tried to discern what sort of greeting this might be. And the angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus. He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. And the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David, and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end.” 

Mary’s response to the angelic announcement is submissive faith

Luke 1:38 (ESV)
“Behold, I am the servant of the Lord; let it be to me according to your word.”

She rejoices in her privilege and in faith exults that future generations will call her blessed.  How much she grasped at this point that her own generation would despise  her as a fornicator is not clear but despise her they did.  Thirty odd years later people still remembered that Jesus was born ‘of fornication’ (Jn 8:31).  Mary’s reputation was in tatters and would never really recover.  Joseph too would forever be a cuckold husband.  In a shame culture (foreign to us today) such ignominy was hard to live with, especially for godly people innocent of wrongdoing.

But such is ever the cost of the Christ.  He forces a choice between reputation on earth and reputation in heaven.  He presses upon those he calls a divide between the approval of two opposing worlds.   His call always costs this world for those who submit.  Mary’s (and Joseph’s) world was turned upside down.  The shadow of the cross was over them before the son who would die upon it was even born.  The message to all who would follow Mary’s Son by faith accepting his Messianic identity was plain – do so and the world will always look at you askance.

Mary embraced the shame and like her son and Lord despised it.  She did so because of the joy of the coming Kingdom that she saw by faith.  She was content to be of no reputation for God had exalted her  And so her soul magnifies the Lord.  She believes his promises and rejoices in his salvation.  She treats as realized what is yet to come.

Luke 1:46-55 (ESV)
And Mary said, ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​“My soul magnifies the Lord, ​​​ ​​​​​​​​and my spirit rejoices in God my Savior, ​​​ ​​​​​​​​for he has looked on the humble estate of his servant. ​​​​​​​For behold, from now on all generations will call me blessed; ​​​ ​​​​​​​​for he who is mighty has done great things for me, ​​​​​​​and holy is his name. ​​​ ​​​​​​​​And his mercy is for those who fear him ​​​​​​​from generation to generation. ​​​ ​​​​​​​​He has shown strength with his arm; ​​​​​​​he has scattered the proud in the thoughts of their hearts; ​​​ ​​​​​​​​he has brought down the mighty from their thrones ​​​​​​​and exalted those of humble estate; ​​​ ​​​​​​​​he has filled the hungry with good things, ​​​​​​​and the rich he has sent away empty. ​​​ ​​​​​​​​He has helped his servant Israel, ​​​​​​​in remembrance of his mercy, ​​​ ​​​​​​​​as he spoke to our fathers, ​​​​​​​to Abraham and to his offspring forever.” ​​​

In the face of a cold disapproving world this is ever the way to stand firm and triumph – the assertions of faith.  This is the victory that overcomes the world, even our faith (1 Jn 5:4).  Faith gives assurance of things hoped for and  evidence of things not seen (Hebs 11:1).  In the words of Peter,

2Pet 1:3-4 (ESV)
His divine power has granted to us all things that pertain to life and godliness, through the knowledge of him who called us to his own glory and excellence, by which he has granted to us his precious and very great promises, so that through them you may become partakers of the divine nature, having escaped from the corruption that is in the world because of sinful desire.


he shall save his people from their sins…

Matt 1:20-21 (ESV)
But as he considered these things, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, “Joseph, son of David, do not fear to take Mary as your wife, for that which is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. She will bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus, for he will save his people from their sins.”

Matthew places right at the heart of the Christmas story or incarnation its purpose, ‘He shall save his people from their sins’.  A plea to all preachers this Christmas, don’t stop at the cradle… get to the cross and the resurrection.  Show with hallelujahs how he saves his people from their sins.  Nothing less is gospel.


following the star and finding the king

Isa 60:1-22 (ESV)
Arise, shine, for your light has come, and the glory of the Lord has risen upon you.  ​​​​​​​​For behold, darkness shall cover the earth, and thick darkness the peoples; but the Lord will arise upon you, and his glory will be seen upon you.  ​​​​​​​​And nations shall come to your light, and kings to the brightness of your rising…  ​​​​​​​​Then you shall see and be radiant; your heart shall thrill and exult, because the abundance of the sea shall be turned to you, the wealth of the nations shall come to you… ​​​​​ They shall bring gold and frankincense, and shall bring good news, the praises of the Lord… ​​​​​​  ​​​​​​For the coastlands shall hope for me, the ships of Tarshish first, to bring your children from afar, their silver and gold with them, for the name of the Lord your God, and for the Holy One of Israel, because he has made you beautiful…

The sun shall be no more your light by day, nor for brightness shall the moon give you light; but the Lord will be your everlasting light, and your God will be your glory.  ​​​​​​​​Your sun shall no more go down, nor your moon withdraw itself; for the Lord will be your everlasting light, and your days of mourning shall be ended.  ​​​​​​​​Your people shall all be righteous; they shall possess the land forever, the branch of my planting, the work of my hands, that I might be glorified.

Isaiah 60 is a glorious vision of a future Zion.  Jerusalem was in ruins because she had been judged by God for her sins.  Israel was in exile.  Isaiah’s prophecy sees a day of coming glory and joy for Jerusalem, for Zion, for Israel.  It is a day when Jerusalem will no longer be despised and a disgrace but all the nations of the earth will bring their wealth to her like the Queen of Sheba brought her gifts to Solomon. Jerusalem will be glorious for the Lord himself will be her glory and her light.

Revelation shows us that the complete fulfilment of this prophecy awaits the Second Coming of Christ and the establishing of his final everlasting Kingdom.  John has a vision of this glory in Revelation 21.

Rev 21:1-27 (ESV)
Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and the sea was no more. And I saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. And I heard a loud voice from the throne saying, “Behold, the dwelling place of God is with man. He will dwell with them, and they will be his people, and God himself will be with them as their God…  Then came one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls full of the seven last plagues and spoke to me, saying, “Come, I will show you the Bride, the wife of the Lamb.” And he carried me away in the Spirit to a great, high mountain, and showed me the holy city Jerusalem coming down out of heaven from God, having the glory of God, its radiance like a most rare jewel, like a jasper, clear as crystal…

And I saw no temple in the city, for its temple is the Lord God the Almighty and the Lamb. And the city has no need of sun or moon to shine on it, for the glory of God gives it light, and its lamp is the Lamb. By its light will the nations walk, and the kings of the earth will bring their glory into it, and its gates will never be shut by day-and there will be no night there. They will bring into it the glory and the honor of the nations.

But Isaiah’s prophecy, like all OT prophecies that speak of the End, has a fulfilment in history.  For the End rightly began 2000 years ago.  The salvation of God that will result in a renewed universe suffused with the presence of God arrived with the birth of Immanuel, God with Us: then Israel’s light dawned; then the glory of the Lord appeared in her midst; and then the nations of the earth began to be drawn to this light and glory.

Matthew’s gospel makes this clear.  Matthew presents Jesus as Messiah, Israel’s King and Lover, the source of her glory.  In other gospels the Glory of Israel is first seen by Shepherds.  But Matthew does not mention the shepherds.  It is the wise men who are the first to come to Jesus.  It is the nations of the world who are first to recognise his arrival and come to worship.  Matthew writes,

Matt 2:1-12 (ESV)
Now after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, behold, wise men from the east came to Jerusalem, saying, “Where is he who has been born king of the Jews? For we saw his star when it rose and have come to worship him.” When Herod the king heard this, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him; and assembling all the chief priests and scribes of the people, he inquired of them where the Christ was to be born. They told him, “In Bethlehem of Judea, for so it is written by the prophet:

“‘And you, O Bethlehem, in the land of Judah,are by no means least among the rulers of Judah; for from you shall come a ruler who will shepherd my people Israel.’”

Then Herod summoned the wise men secretly and ascertained from them what time the star had appeared. And he sent them to Bethlehem, saying, “Go and search diligently for the child, and when you have found him, bring me word, that I too may come and worship him.” After listening to the king, they went on their way. And behold, the star that they had seen when it rose went before them until it came to rest over the place where the child was. When they saw the star, they rejoiced exceedingly with great joy. And going into the house they saw the child with Mary his mother, and they fell down and worshiped him. Then, opening their treasures, they offered him gifts, gold and frankincense and myrrh. And being warned in a dream not to return to Herod, they departed to their own country by another way.

In fact, while Israel is poised to reject and kill him if possible, the gentiles come to worship and rejoice at the birth of Israel’s glory, of Zion’s King first indicated in a rising star.  They announce to Israel the ‘good news’ of his birth (Isa 60:6).  They bring their wealth to him… gifts of gold and frankincense… and they rejoice in his birth.

Matthew’s narrative is a template for the course of history.  For though he comes to his own, his own do not receive him.  They, like Herod, wish to kill him, and eventually succeed.  Messiah is first worshipped and adored by gentiles.  It is the nations of the world who today delight in Immanuel and place their gifts of homage at his feet.  Meantime his own people continue to reject him.  Only when the full number of gentiles has been saved will Israel turn again in faith and rejoice in her deliverer (Roms 11).  Then Jew and Gentile together, Israel and the nations of the world, will be part of that city, the New Jerusalem, the bride of Messiah radiant with the ‘glory of God’.

All this is the inscrutable wisdom of God who decides that the last shall be first and the first shall be last.

Let’s make sure that we like the first gentile converts, the wise men, make every effort to find and worship the new-born King for therein lies our joy, our glory, and our salvation.


a hymn that worships Christ

This hymn from my past sums up well (if a little quaintly) the life of our Lord on earth.  It provokes worship.

A perfect path of purest grace,
Unblemished and complete,
Was Thine, Thou spotless Nazarite,
Pure, even to the feet.

Thy stainless life, Thy lovely walk,
In every aspect true,
From the defilement all around,
No taint of evil drew.

No broken service, Lord was Thine,
No change was in Thy way;
Unsullied in Thy holiness,
Thy strength knew no decay.

The vow was on Thee—Thou didst come,
To yield Thyself to death;
And consecration marked Thy path,
And spoke in every breath.

Morning by morning Thou didst wake,
Amidst this poisoned air;
Yet no contagion touched Thy soul,
No sin disturbed Thy prayer.

Thus, Lord we love to trace Thy course,
To mark where Thou hast trod,
And follow Thee with loving eye,
Up to the throne of God.


flesh and spirit in romans, and beyond (1)

We cannot properly understand Romans until we learn  it describes two realms of existence.  In fact, the Christian gospel, which is of course the theme of Romans, has not been truly grasped until it is seen as the story of two distinct and deeply different worlds.

Different images are used in the Bible to describe this distinction: nature and grace; natural and spiritual; old man and new man; Adam and Christ; ‘in Adam’ and ‘in Christ'; and especially, creation and new creation.  Romans does not use the more absolute and dramatic language of ‘new creation’ (Gals 6:15; 2 Cor 5:17) but does develop another way of saying pretty much the same; it speaks of  ‘flesh’ and ‘Spirit’.  This distinction is first mooted in the opening verses of the book.

Rom 1:1-4 (ESV)
Paul, a servant of Christ Jesus, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God, which he promised beforehand through his prophets in the holy Scriptures, concerning his Son, who was descended from David according to the flesh and was declared to be the Son of God in power according to the Spirit
of holiness by his resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord.

This text is clearly significant.  Paul signals, right at the outset of Romans, in this compressed summary of the gospel, that it centres on Christ and his two stages of humanity, flesh and Spirit.  By ‘flesh’ and ‘Spirit’, Paul is is not referring to Christ as he is essentially, that is, in his hypostatic union of humanity and deity, nor is he referring to Christ anthropologically, that is, psychosomatically, in his human composition as body and soul, rather he is referring to Christ redemptive-historically, that is, in his two spheres of existence as incarnate ‘Messianic-Son’, namely, his humiliation and exaltation; before resurrection, Christ is Son ‘according to the flesh‘ and upon resurrection, he is Son ‘according to the Spirit‘.

If we are to make any sense of the flesh/Spirit divide so important to Paul (and other NT writers) we must first consider it as Romans does, that is, Christologically, in terms of  Jesus.

Christ ‘in the flesh’

In doing so, however, a complication must be addressed.  For the distinction between old creation and new creation that applies to us does not apply in direct parallel with Christ. The parallel exists, but only with qualifications and contrast (rather like Roms 5:12-21).

  • Firstly, in one profoundly important sense, Christ was from incarnation ‘new creation’.  He was always, not ‘Adam’ but ‘Christ’ (Roms 5), not ‘the First Man’ but ‘the Second Man’ (1 Cor 15:47).
  • Secondly, although he came as the First of a New Creation he was also truly ‘ in the flesh’ (Jn 1:4; 6:51; Roms 8:3; 9:5; 2 Cor 5;16; Col 1:22; Hebs 2:14; 5:7; 10:20; 1 Pet 3:18; 1 Jn 4:2).  In a very real sense he was our ‘flesh and blood’.
  • Thirdly, he was not ‘flesh’ in precisely the way we are.

‘Flesh’ in Scripture can convey a number of ideas.  Two are especially important.  One conveys the idea simply of being part of the first creation even in its primal state.  Animal and human life is simply ‘flesh’ (Gen 2:21; 1 Cor 15:39).  In this sense it conveys the weakness and frailty of humanity, whether living in Eden or beyond Eden (Ps 78:39; Roms 6:19).  However, ‘flesh’ often conveys the idea of fallen and rebellious humanity, humanity in opposition to God and under the power of sin, Satan, and death.  Christ became ‘flesh’ in the first sense but not in the second sense (though, as we shall, see even here some qualifications must be made).

Thus, although Christ is from incarnation God’s new creation humanity, ‘The Second Man, the Lord from Heaven’, yet he entered truly into our first creation humanity.  Scripture establishes this in a number of ways.  He is,  ‘the seed of the woman‘ (Gen 3:15) who ‘takes hold of the seed of Abraham‘ (Hebs 4:16), and is ‘born of a woman‘ and ‘under the Law‘ (Gals 4:4).  Significantly, we discover in each text cited he embraces our humanity that he may save humanity.  He became ‘the seed of the woman‘ that he may ‘bruise the head of the serpent’, that is, that he may overthrow Satan (Gen 3:15).  He lays ‘hold of the seed of Abraham’ for the same reason.

Heb 2:14-17 (ESV)
Since therefore the children share in flesh and blood, he himself likewise partook of the same things, that through death he might destroy the one who has the power of death, that is, the devil, and deliver all those who through fear of death were subject to lifelong slavery. For surely it is not angels that he helps, but he helps the offspring of Abraham. Therefore he had to be made like his brothers in every respect, so that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in the service of God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people.

He must identify with us if he is to deliver us.  And so he was born of a woman and under the Law to ‘redeem those who were under the law and all their lives subject to bondage’ (Gals 4:4,5). Scripture therefore takes great care to affirm that he was really part of our humanity – his body would weary, his mind tire and be troubled, and his emotions be in turmoil.  He even subjected himself  in some ways to the powers and authorities that rule ‘flesh’ – he lived in a world where the power of Satan, sin, death, and Law were active all around.  In various ways these impinged on him  – in temptation, weariness, opposition,  suffering, submission as a Jew to the Law, and finally submission to sin and death in the sense that he became sin and entered death (Roms 6:9,10; 2 Cor 5:21).   Yet, he was himself ‘without sin‘ (Hebs 4;14) and ‘knew no sin‘ (2 Cor 5:21).  Romans 8 sums up the ambiguity of the mediator’s ‘flesh’ well

Rom 8:3 (ESV)
For God has done what the law, weakened by the flesh, could not do. By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh. (Cf Phil 2:7,8)

Notice again, his identification with us in ‘flesh’ is redemptive in aim.  Christ came in flesh, yet not sinful flesh, that in flesh, his crucified flesh, ”sin in the flesh’, may be condemned and die.  This is the profound mystery of the incarnation.  God’s Son, Israel’s  promised ‘seed of David’, the Mighty Warrior-King destined to destroy God’s and his people’s enemies came in flesh.  Yet the enemies he must destroy were far greater than Israel ever imagined; the greatest enemy was not outside the people, it was inside the people, it was the people itself.

‘Flesh’ itself, was the enemy that must be eliminated, the rebel that must be executed.  ‘Flesh’ must die for only in its death and the death of the old order of which it was an integral part was salvation possible.  And in Christ, that is precisely what happened.  He became real flesh, the only righteous flesh, that he may in death represent flesh, rebellious flesh, and so revoke flesh.  In his death the history of ‘flesh’ is finished.  But it is finished that a better humanity, a better life, and a better world may be born.  A world, humanity and life existing not in the weak realm of ‘flesh’ but in the powerful realm of ‘Spirit’.  Romans 1:3,4 is compressed further and echoed in the words of 2 Corinthians and of 1 Peter

2Cor 13:4 (ESV)
For he was crucified in weakness, but lives by the power of God.

1Pet 3:18 (ESV)
For Christ also suffered once for sins, the righteous for the unrighteous, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh but made alive in the Spirit.

Death is the transition of Christ from humiliation to exaltation, from flesh to Spirit, from weakness to power.  The two biblical realms of existence, ‘flesh’ and ‘Spirit’ find their bridge in Christ.  In flesh, incarnation, he came down to where we are in our weakness and death; in Spirit, resurrection and exaltation, he raises us to where he is in power and life.

And that is the subject of the next blog on this topic.

the cavekeeper

The Cave promotes the Christian Gospel by interacting with Christian faith and practice from a conservative evangelical perspective.


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