Archive for the 'God' Category


the word became flesh

And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we have seen his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father, full of grace and truth. 15 (John bore witness about him, and cried out, “This was he of whom I said, ‘He who comes after me ranks before me, because he was before me.’”) 16 And from his fullness we have all received, grace upon grace. 17 For the law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 18 No one has ever seen God; the only God, who is at the Father’s side, he has made him known. John 1:14-18 | ESV 

The Word became flesh’.   The Word who was with God and was God became man.  As Peter Lewis in his excellent book ‘The Glory of Christ’  writes, ‘the philosophically unthinkable became a fact’.   As is so often the case, God’s wisdom confounds the wisdom of the wise: while the philosophical world saw progress in terms of escape from the physical and material by contrast God’s salvation, the only and best possible progress for humanity, involves God becoming flesh.  Human aspiration (hubris!) is to become pure Spirit, like God: God, in the person of this Son, humbles himself to assume flesh that he may redeem it, and to do so forever.   God’s thoughts are not human thoughts and God’s ways are not our ways. We should remember,that while God becoming man established that there is nothing morally suspect about material creation itself (before the entrance of sin it is described by God as ‘very good’) yet nevertheless for God the Son to assume human nature was an act of immense grace and self-humbling (Phil 2:5-11). God, that he may reveal and redeem, would experience creation ‘from within’ (to us another Peter Lewis expression).

enfleshment to reveal

It is in the Word made flesh that God in history is finally and fully revealed.  God had spoken in the past in a variety of ways and he had truly revealed himself but only in Christ do we see God as he fully and completely is.  John says,

No one has ever seen God; the One and only, who is at the Father’s side, he has made him known (or fully revealed him). John 1:18 

John’s background to this statement in v18 and to the previous verses in this section (vv14-18) is Moses’ encounter with God on Sinai.  Moses had two Law-receiving visits to Sinai.  On the first visit it was to receive the covenant, the two tablets of stone containing the Ten Commandments (and various other aspects of the covenant). The context was law and the mountain was a terrifying place, full of thunderings and darkness.  Pure law and a sinful people is a terrifying combination.  Little wonder the atmosphere was terrifying.  In fact, the two tablets of the covenant given by God to Moses on Sinai never reached the Israelite camp  for when Moses saw their idolatrous revelry as he approached he threw the tablets down breaking them. Even while receiving the covenant commands on the mountain God informs him the nation are busy breaking it on a grand scale in the valley below.  Law, as a covenant, proved to be a failure, even before it had properly begun.  If the covenant terms are to be enacted then God’s judgement will consume the people (Exod 32:10) for covenant justice is outraged.  The covenant was pure law and offered no mercy.  All, if left to the covenant, was over for Israel. Moses, however, ascends Sinai a second time.  This time the meeting is more complex. Moses pleads with God on behalf of the people.  He asks for and receives a ‘seeing’ of God.  And he receives a second giving of the law.

It is this second visit to Sinai that lies behind John’s text (vv14-18). The covenant like the stones on which it was written is in broken and in pieces.  Fearful judgement is the justice the law demands.  Is this consuming justice the only way?  God finds the solution to the covenant demand for consuming wrath in the goodness of his own character (Ex 33:19).  More precisely, he finds it in his own determination to be merciful if he chooses. God’s heart is gracious and he wills to show mercy to whomsoever he chooses.  Israel’s salvation (both at that point and in future occasions) and ours rests solely on this determination in God’s part to bless and be merciful.  God will be gracious to whom he will be gracious and be merciful upon whom he will be merciful.  He loved Israel and that love would overcome all obstacles.  He is the Lord, the ‘I AM’, the Sovereign Self-Existing,  Self-Determining One, who chooses to bless (Exod 33:18). Moses, asks to see the glory of the ‘I AM’ but he is told he can only see God’s ‘back’.  He will see the glory but not fully.  He will not see God’s ‘front’.  He will not see his face where the full identity of the Lord will be known.  He will be placed in a rock-cleft and will see the trail of God’s glory after he has passed (Ex 33:20-23). Thus we read,

The Lord descended in the cloud and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name of the Lord. 6 The Lord passed before him and proclaimed, “The Lord, the Lord, a God merciful and gracious, slow to anger, and abounding in steadfast love and faithfulness, 7 keeping steadfast love for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, but who will by no means clear the guilty, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children and the children’s children, to the third and the fourth generation.” 8 And Moses quickly bowed his head toward the earth and worshiped. Exodus 34:5-8 | ESV

The full glory of the God who ‘abounds in steadfast love and faithfulness’ he will not see but a partial view of it he will.  Perhaps, in a sense, Moses experience on Sinai shapes the covenant experience of Israel. The covenant will include a sacrifice system for human failure (Leviticus).  The God of mercy provides for sin.  The ‘back’ of God’s glory as the Lord,  the merciful and gracious God, slow to anger, and abounding in steadfast love and faithfulness’ is revealed in this provision for sin in the covenant and in the many occasions in their history when God acts graciously even if the covenant people deserved otherwise.  However, the revealing of God’s ‘front’, of his ‘face’ and full glory must await another day. This day arrived in Jesus.  In Jesus, the full glory of the ‘I AM’ is revealed.  John says,

and we have seen his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father, full of grace and truth (1:14).

The words ‘grace and truth’ are the same words as those in Exodus, ‘steadfast love and faithfulness’.  That glory which was partially seen by yet partially hidden from Moses radiates in its fullness from Jesus Christ. To see him is to see the Father.  The full identity of ‘the Lord’ is revealed by the incarnate Word.  All that God is in himself is revealed in Christ.  God’s ‘face’ is shown and it is the face of a Father.  The ‘truth’ of who God is finally revealed.  The gracious heart of Yahweh is unveiled.  Unlike the OT tabernacle or tent where God lived among his people but remained hidden behind its veils, in Jesus, the tabernacle where he now dwells, his glory is not hidden but shines out in all its beauty.  In his character, his demeanour, his words, his actions, his life, death and resurrection, the divine shekinah radiates and God is fully seen.

John will brook no rival to Jesus.  He, like God on the mountain of transfiguration, is jealous for the unique glory of Christ.  Moses and Elijah may be there (representing the revelation in the law and the prophets) but they must disappear if Jesus’ unique glory is threatened.  He alone is the beloved Son to be heard (Mk 9).  Moses may at Sinai see the glory, however partially; Jesus is the glory.  He is the Lord, the ‘I AM’ who was before Abraham (Jn 8:58).  He and he alone is the Light of the world.  Not creation, not the covenant (of Sinai), but Christ is the image of the invisible God (Col 1:15), the radiance of the glory of God and exact imprint of his being (Hebs 1:3).

Do we wish to see God as he really is?  Does our heart wish to see the full beauty of the one living God? Look at Jesus.  Behold his glory.  The glory of God was (and is) revealed in Jesus but not all saw it.  It was then and is now perceived only by faith.  For those of faith the gospels are the Spirit-breathed portrait of Christ and so of the living God.  John tells us many more books could have been written, more books than the world could contain, but in God’s wisdom four have been written, enough for us to see the divine glory in the One and Only, enough for us to receive of his grace, believe in his name, look only here and nowhere else for glory, and adore.

enfleshed to redeem

The word must become flesh not only that God may be fully revealed but that man may be redeemed. In his Prologue John only hints at redemptive issues.  They are implicit in Christ as life and light and explicit, if undeveloped, in the promise of birth into the family of God.  John’s primary focus in his prologue is that Jesus reveals but it is sure that the revealing is to the end of redeeming.  The one who was in the form of God took up human nature for the death of the cross.  The glory of Christ will include, and especially be, the strange glory of the cross (Jn 12:22).  There his glory of grace and truth will transmit to the world for it is in being ‘lifted up’ he is fully disclosed for who he is and draws all men to him (Jn 3:14; 8:28; 12:32). For unless a corn of wheat falls into the ground and dies it abides alone but if it dies it bears much fruit (Jn 12:24). Thus he assumed humanity that he may redeem humanity.

Since therefore the children share in flesh and blood, he himself likewise partook of the same things, that through death he might destroy the one who has the power of death, that is, the devil, 15 and deliver all those who through fear of death were subject to lifelong slavery. 16 For surely it is not angels that he helps, but he helps the offspring of Abraham. 17 Therefore he had to be made like his brothers in every respect, so that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in the service of God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people. 18 For because he himself has suffered when tempted, he is able to help those who are being tempted. Hebrews 2:14-18 | ESV

The logos became flesh. God did not merely live in a human body, he became human.  Jesus is the seed of the woman.  He had a biological, not adopted, human mother (though her sinful nature was not transmitted).  He had human physiology and human psychology.  He is truly Abraham’s seed and has true birthrights to David’s throne.  He is our brother in every respect, except sin. He has experienced our experiences and known our emotions.  His heart has praised yet cried out ‘why’. He has enjoyed a meal yet known hunger, drank wine and felt thirst, worked all day and experienced weariness.  He knew friendship, isolation, betrayal, and abandonment.  He experienced the extremes of being lionised and demonised.  He loved and hated.  He knew compassion and anger.  He obeyed and trusted.  He prayed and hid the Scriptures in his heart.  He anticipated, sometimes with joy and sometimes with dread.  He knew satisfaction and shame.  He loved and lost (Judas).  He learned what obedience meant by experiencing all obedience cost.  As Peter Lewis says, ‘he laughed and cried, hoped and feared, knew delight and disappointment… was tempted as man and perfected as Mediator’. This is God manifest in flesh (1 Tim 3:16).  He assumed flesh that the divine glory may be revealed not least in redeeming it, sanctifying it, and that it may, like him and in him, be received up in glory.

Let Peter Lewis have the last word.

Go to the spiritual heart of the created universe, and you will find a man!  Go to the place where angels bow who never fell, and you will find a man!  Go to the very centre of the manifested glory of the invisible God, and you will find a man: true human nature, one of our own race, mediating the glory of God!


trinity, a simple reflection

Who can understand God?  Who can grasp far less explain all that is meant by the Holy Trinity.  Who can even adequately explain what is revealed.  The creeds and confessions seek not so much to explain what we mean by trinity as guard against what we don’t mean.  This snapshot reflection is just that, a snapshot of one revealed insight into God in trinity.  No doubt it needs balanced and deepened by other revealed truth.  I hope, snapshot though it is, it warms our hearts and instructs our minds.  I hope it helps us worship in truth.

Man is made in the image of God.  There are certain resemblances between God and a man as man made in the divine image implies.  These correspondences help us grasp a little of what we mean by God as trinity.  Intrinsic to human beings is an intelligence or heart that plans and purposes.  To express and fulfil these plans/desires in a normal human being requires him being personally active both in words and actions.  In a powerful autocratic king of the ancient world his desires and plans were expressed and realised simply by a word of command; he needed to do nothing his words were enough.   In this he is but a shadow of the immense power of God who simply speaks and it is realised.   God’s word in this sense is virtually an expression even extension of his identity, his personality, and his word creates what his heart desires.  Of course we express words through the breath of our mouths.  Continuing the analogy of a person speaking, the words we say are only possible through the breath of our mouths.  The breath gives energy to the word.  It is its empowerment.  The Bible speaks too of the breath of God, a breath so powerful it is also synonymous with the wind.

Putting this together we can say something like this regarding the being of God: God is a divine being with plans and purposes.  These intentions are expressed and realised by speaking, by words, the facility for which is the breath of God.  As we read the OT again and again God acts and these actions are tied to God’s word and breath (or Spirit). Cf. Ps 33:6;  Job 33:4; 4:9; John 3:6-8; 2 Tim 3:16

By the NT, these OT aspects of God’s unified being are revealed as being distinct ‘persons’ within the one God.  So we can say something like, God the Father, is the fount and source of deity (as Father implies).  All is rooted in him.  He plans and purposes.  God the Son is the divine word in deity.  He is the word or speech, heard and seen, through whom God the Father accomplishes all the purposes and plans of his heart (Jn 1:1, 18; 5:19-29).  Deity made visible.  God the Spirit is the breath of God.  He is the power, the divine energy, who enables the Son, the Word, to ‘speak’ that is to accomplish all the desires of the Father’s heart (Matt 1:18; Lk 4:1,18). 


the glory of the cross

Est 6:6 (ESV) … the king said… , “What should be done to the man whom the king delights to honour?” 

The story is set in Susa, the Persian capital, during the reign of King Ahasuerus, better known by his Greek name, Xerxes I (486–464 b.c.). Some Jews had returned to Jerusalem, where they enjoyed a reasonable amount of control over their own affairs as described in the books of Ezra and Nehemiah. Others, like Esther and Mordecai, were still in exile. As a minority group, the Jews were viewed with suspicion and sometimes faced threats to their existence from people in a position to harm them. In this respect Esther and Mordecai’s situation was similar to that of Daniel and his friends a century or so earlier. (ESV Study Bible Intro to Esther).

Mordecai, by God’s providence, discovered and defused a plot to murder the king (Ahasuerus).  His loyalty provoked the king to bestow public honour on him.  The honour was gracious for the king was not legally obliged to honour Mordecai (no law said he must, nor was the reason for Mordecai’s devotion any law promising good to those who were loyal, for there was none, loyalty was their duty), however, he felt a moral obligation to honour someone who had honoured him in such an outstanding way; such honouring was an appropriate reward.  In this even a pagan king revealed the moral imprint of the divine image for God himself says, ‘he who honours me, I will honour'(1 Sam 2:20).  It is with this background informing us we read and reflect on the words of Jesus in John 13,

John 13:31-32 (ESV2011) When he had gone out, Jesus said, “Now is the Son of Man glorified, and God is glorified in him. If God is glorified in him, God will also glorify him in himself, and glorify him at once.

now is the son of man glorified…

This text follows immediately from Judas leaving to initiate the betrayal.  The betrayal signals the beginning of humanity’s darkest hour, as John’s reference to ‘night’ suggests (13:30), which finds its culmination in the rejection of the cross.  Morally this is the world’s worst deed and its ultimate exposure.  The atrocities of the centuries (C20 holocaust included) are as nothing compared to the conspired murder of the Creator. The contrast could not be more vivid; the most depraved inglorious actions of men in counterpoint with the most devoted and glorious action of Jesus ‘the son of man’, for it is ‘the son of man’ who is glorified. Humanity may utterly shame itself in its defiance of God and indifference to his glory (Adam did, and his heirs are here merely demonstrating the same depravity, though more culpably so, for now defiance and rejection is not simply of a good Creator and Provider but of  the God of grace and truth revealed in Christ) but this backcloth of human depravity serves only to make more radiant the moral glory of the obedient ‘man’ on the cross.

It is the true glory of ‘man’ because human glory is ever founded upon obedience to God and here is obedience of the most exacting kind.  Man is a moral being, made in God’s image, created to obey God’s will and seek his glory.  He is glorious only when so doing.  The more demanding that will and the more obedience to it costs then the more man is glorified therein.  Just as a son is never more admirably son-like than when obeying a demanding instruction of his father, and a soldier is never more essentially soldier-like than when he obeys his commanding officer at the cost of losing everything, reputation and life itself, so too man, in Christ, is most glorious in the obedience extremity of the cross.  

The glory of man is perfectly displayed in Christ’s voluntary, God-honouring, self-sacrificing obedience to death; here is humanity at its most human. This is ‘man’ as he ought to be; surrounded by every conceivable reason to sidestep obedience and aware obedience will cost everything – the reputation of men to whom he is a worm and no man (Ps 22:6-8; Isa 53:3), the companionship of his own who forsake and flee (Ps 88:18; 38:11; 41:9), the sustaining of angelic beings who normally guard those who fear God yet here are absent (Matt 26:53,54), the fellowship and face of God in judicial abandonment (Ps 22), intolerable suffering in body and mind, so crushing he is unrecognisable as human (Isa 52:14; 53:10), the cruel feral hatred of his fellows seeking his blood like wild ravenous baying beasts (Ps 22), the unmasked fury of Satan whose hour has come (Lk 22:53),  and ultimately the ignominy and injustice of cross-death itself (Ps 69:4,19; 44:15)- yet he never wavers from the path of submission to the divine will, his food and delight remaining as ever, the will of him that sent him.

His supreme and unwavering desire is to bring glory to God in life or death.  He who knew no sin will willingly be made sin if this is God’s will and bring’s God glory.  He who is creation’s crown and rightful heir of all will gladly be cut off and have nothing if in this his God is obeyed and glorified.  The cup of unbearable aloneness (so contrary to nature… it is not good for man to be alone) will be freely borne if it’s God’s cup for him to drink.  He will be the kernel of wheat that falls into the ground and dies if this will be the means of much fruit to the glory of God (Jn 12:23,24).  He will submit to Satan’s worst if this is the only way he can be overthrown and he and his powers destroyed to the praise and glory of God and the blessing of man; he will be the serpent-crushing seed even if it means for him the bruising of death (Lk 22:53, Hebs 2:14).  The fulfilling and realising of God’s purposes is his consuming desire and delight and the cost of so doing he will despise (Hebs 12).

Here is man, under the severest test, the most adverse of circumstances, proving to be man as he essentially ought to be, as he was created to be – utterly devoted, utterly obedient, utterly submissive, utterly committed to God’s glory. The moral glory of man being what he ought to be to God is revealed fully in the cross.  This was indeed man’s glory, that God should be (as he was) glorified in Him.  Little wonder such a man will, when lifted up, draw all men (of faith) to himself. Here is a man for men to follow and revere, here is humanity at its most glorious and worthy, most intended, bringing perfect glory to God.

and god is glorified in him…

God is glorified in the first instance simply in the ‘son of man’s’ faith-obedience, obedience to death and that the death of the cross (Phil 2).  Man was not created for death but for privilege as the crown of creation.  The ‘son of man’, eschatologically expected to be crowned with glory and honour with all things subject to him (Ps 8; Dan 7:13)). Thus when Jesus submits to the cross and death and all that seems to contradict this destiny he does so believing he is the sin-bearer and will be saved out of death (Acts 2:24-28; Hebs 5:7)/  Such is the faith-affirmation of this very text. ‘If God is glorified in him, God will also glorify him in himself, and glorify him at once’.   Here is man trusting in God’s faithfulness and righteousness when trusting costs everything and everything conspires to defy such trust; he trusts even as his agonized uncomprehending ‘why’ of loss echoes in the silent heavens (Ps 22).  How can God be other than glorified ‘in him’?

Yet God is further glorified ‘in him’.  Glory is the outshining of an essential worth.  The greater the essential worth of an object (or person) the greater its glory.  The obedience of Christ in the cross provides the context, the only context, whereby God can reveal fully who he is.  God acts in various ways throughout history and in so doing always reveals something of who he is and therefore an aspect of his glory.  In the life of Christ, he reveals himself as never before (he that has seen me…) but even in Christ, full revelation is only complete at the cross.  At the cross, all that God is, is revealed, and revealed according to that which He is consciously to Himself.  His nature is seen as it really is with each attribute revealed in relation to the other as it truly is without any one attribute hiding, or obscuring, or contradicting another.   Thus God’s heart of grace and love shines fully but in such a way that his wisdom, truth, holiness, power, righteousness and majesty are seen too acting in perfect harmony with it.  God’s heart, a heart of love, is displayed as it really is and his attributes unite in expression of it. Of his heart of love we read,

1 John 4:9-10 (ESV2011) In this the love of God was made manifest among us, that God sent his only Son into the world, so that we might live through him. In this is love, not that we have loved God but that he loved us and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins.

Yet it is not a love that acts in conflict with his righteousness but in conjunction with it.

Rom 3:21-26 (ESV2011) But now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from the law, although the Law and the Prophets bear witness to it— the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe. For there is no distinction: for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, and are justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, whom God put forward as a propitiation by his blood, to be received by faith. This was to show God’s righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over former sins. It was to show his righteousness at the present time, so that he might be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus.

Likewise his holiness is harnessed to a saving purpose,

Isa 52:10 (ESV2011) ​The LORD has bared his holy arm before the eyes of all the nations, and all the ends of the earth shall see the salvation of our God.

Likewise his wisdom and power.

1Cor 1:23-24 (ESV2011) but we preach Christ crucified, a stumbling block to Jews and folly to Gentiles, but to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God.

All work in symphonic unison revealing the glory of his grace.

Titus 2:11-14 (ESV2011) For the grace of God has appeared… Jesus Christ, who gave himself for us to redeem us from all lawlessness and to purify for himself a people for his own possession who are zealous for good works.

At the cross the ‘grace of God in truth‘ is revealed (Col 1:6).  Indeed, at the cross the truth of God is revealed as nowhere else. Not only God but all else is revealed as it really is: man’s rebellious heart is exposed as the nations rage and the peoples plot in vain, the kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the LORD and against his Anointed, saying, “Let us burst their bonds apart and cast away their cords from us.”and Satan’s naked hatred of God is seen in his dragon-like desire to devour the man-child.

That God is glorified in Christ at the cross is beyond dispute.

In summary, God is glorified in ‘the son of man’ for the cross occasions the greatest conceivable demonstration of human devotion to God and God is glorified in this.  Furthermore, ‘the son of man’s cross-devotion uniquely enables God to display fully all the attributes of his being integrated in the one great purpose of his heart, that is, to accomplish in Christ the reconciliation of all things to the praise of his glorious grace.  Eternity will never unveil a way that reveals and thus glorifies God more fully than the cross.  This is why at the centre of heaven’s throne John sees a freshly slain lamb; the cross will never diminish or dim, it will always be as yesterday for it is the glory of God par excellence.

the son of man glorified in god

What is the outcome of God glorified in man?  Man is glorified in God.  If God is glorified in him then he will glorify him in himself, and glorify him immediately…  If unrighteous pagan kings such as Ahasuerus recognise a moral imperative to reward those who serve them in outstanding ways how much more the King Eternal.  What will God do for the man who in honouring the divine will accepted the brutality and hatred of all, entered the dragon’s den, accepted the cup of divine wrath, undertook responsibility  for sin, agreed to be the atoning sacrifice killed on the altar and the scapegoat banished to the wilderness that God’s honour may be vindicated, his purposes of grace realized, and his righteousness upheld in so doing?  

What will God do for one who has so glorified him?  He will in turn glorify this man.  Indeed so great has been the debasement to which the son of man has submitted that God may be glorified that God will glorify him ‘in himself’.  That is, he will not simply glorify him but will share with him his own glory, that glory that he does not give to another*.  He who humbled himself to death for the glory of God will be raised from the dead and exalted for God will not allow this Holy One to see corruption (it would be unjust) but will raise him and will seat him at his own right hand in heaven.  He will share God’s throne and God’s glory.  He who went to the deepest depths of shame to bring to God the highest glory shall be himself rewarded with the highest glory.  God is no man’s debtor.  Such will be the reward, the just reward, of the man whom the King delights to honour.

In this way the eschatological promise of Ps 8 will be fulfilled.

Heb 2:5-9 (ESV2011) For it was not to angels that God subjected the world to come, of which we are speaking. It has been testified somewhere, “What is man, that you are mindful of him, or the son of man, that you care for him? You made him for a little while lower than the angels; you have crowned him with glory and honour, putting everything in subjection under his feet.” Now in putting everything in subjection to him, he left nothing outside his control. At present, we do not yet see everything in subjection to him. But we see him who for a little while was made lower than the angels, namely Jesus, crowned with glory and honour because of the suffering of death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for everyone.

Notice, he is crowned with glory and honour because of the suffering of death.   We have a similar conclusion in Isaiah 53,

Isa 53:10-12 (ESV2011) Yet it was the will of the LORD to crush him; he has put him to grief; when his soul makes an offering for guilt, he shall see his offspring; he shall prolong his days; the will of the LORD shall prosper in his hand. Out of the anguish of his soul he shall see and be satisfied; by his knowledge shall the righteous one, my servant, make many to be accounted righteous, and he shall bear their iniquities. ​Therefore I will divide him a portion with the many, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong, because he poured out his soul to death and was numbered with the transgressors; yet he bore the sin of many, and makes intercession for the transgressors.

Philippians 2 makes the same point; God glorifies Christ ‘in himself’.

Phil 2:5-11 (ESV2011) Have this mind among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus, who, though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped, but emptied himself, by taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men. And being found in human form, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross. Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name that is above every name, so that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

He has been seated on God’s own throne and all things once subject to God have been made subject to him (Ps 2).  He has inherited a name (and so a dignity) above every name including all angelic beings (Hebs 1:4).  He reigns not only over earth but over all things.   Thomas Kelly’s hymn expresses it well,

Behold the Lamb with glory crowned!
To Him all power is given;
No place too high for Him is found,
No place too high in heaven..

He fills the throne—the throne above,
He fills it without wrong;
The object of His Father’s love,
The theme of angels’ song.

Though high, yet He accepts the praise
His people offer here;
The faintest, feeblest lay they raise
Will reach the Saviour’s ear.

This song be ours, and this alone,
That celebrates the Name
Of Him that sits upon the throne,
And that exalts the Lamb.

To Him whom men despise and slight,
To Him be glory given;
The crown is His, and His by right
The highest place in heaven. 

But is this glory and position his alone?  The hymn speaks of ‘his people’.  Isa 53 speaks of ‘his offspring’ and ‘the righteous making many righteous’ and  of him ‘dividing the spoil with the strong’.  The express purpose of his death was that it would multiply others like him.

John 12:23-24 (ESV2011) And Jesus answered them, “The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified. Truly, truly, I say to you, unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains alone; but if it dies, it bears much fruit.

Thus in resurrection he says to God, ‘Behold I and the children you have given me‘ (Cf. Hebs 2:10:16).  He promises his disciples that if he goes away he will come again to receive them to himself so that where he is (the Father’s house) there they may be also (Jn 14:1-6).  He prays that his own (given to him by the Father) will with him where he is that they may see his glory (Jn 17:24).  Amazingly, while there is a glory that is entirely his own (his intrinsic glory as a divine person to which he is restored, and the glory that is uniquely his due as the sin-bearer for which he will be ever worshipped) and while he is always pre-eminent in glory, yet the glorious position that he has at the right hand of God’s majesty is one that we by grace, as his bride and his body, are called to share.  If God raised and exalted Jesus as an act of righteousness then he must also raise and exalt with him all those united to him – the offspring of Abraham, his brothers, for whom he died.  To do less than reward Christ’s obedience to death with the end it was undertaken to accomplish (the redeeming of his own) would be unjust such is the moral value and imperative of the cross. Thus we become ‘the righteousness of God in him‘. Christ’s exaltation and our exaltation with him (seated with him in heavenly places) is a demonstration that God is righteous.  In him has been won so much more than Adam lost**. We are accepted by God in the son he loves.  We are joint heirs along with Christ.   We with him are blessed with ever spiritual blessing in the heavenlies.  We, like him, are not simply justified but glorified.  We are the fulness of him who fills all in all (Eph 1:23).

By nature and by practice far, How very far from God!                                                                                  Yet now by grace brought nigh to Him Through faith in Jesus’ blood.

So nigh, so very nigh to God, I cannot nearer be;                                                                                          For in the person of His Son, I am as near as He.

So dear, so very dear to God, More dear I cannot be;                                                                               The love wherewith He loves the Son, Such is His love to me.

And so the complete mystery of God’s purposes  – suffering and glory – are revealed in these two pregnant verses from John’s gospel verses that we may wonder and worship.

GAZING on Thee, Lord, in glory,
While our hearts in worship bow,
There we read the wondrous story
Of the cross — its shame and woe.

Every mark of dark dishonour
Heaped upon Thy thorn-crowned brow,
All the depths of Thy heart’s sorrow
Told in answering glory now.

On that cross alone — forsaken — 
Where no pitying eye was found;
Now to God’s right hand exalted,
With Thy praise the heavens resound.

Did Thy God e’en then forsake Thee,
Hide His face from Thy deep need?
In Thy face, once marred and smitten,
All His glory now we read.

Gazing on it we adore Thee,
Blessed, precious, holy Lord;
Thou, the Lamb, alone art worthy,
This be earth’s and heaven’s accord.

Rise our hearts, and bless the Father,
Ceaseless song e’en here begun,
Endless praise and adoration
To the Father and the Son.

*  He can do so for the man with whom he shares it is himself the Son of God, a divine person (Jn 17:1-4)

**  It is sometimes claimed that had Adam continued in obedience he would have been rewarded with glorification.  This is sheer conjecture, and mistaken conjecture at that.  God’s intention was never glorification in Adam but glorification in Christ.  Furthermore, glorification was predicated on God being perfectly glorified in the cross.  What could Adam have done that equalled the cross?

Further, we should not equate this rewarding of Christ with mere law-keeping (though he did of course keep the law).  This is much more than law-keeping.  No law demanded the cross.  In fact, according to the law, Jesus should have lived and not died.  This is obedience of a different order.  It was initiated in heaven (outside of law) and demanded of the son of man what no law did or could (that he take the curse of a broken law upon himself).  It was, in fact, this obedience beyond mere law-keeping (the death of the cross) that was the basis of glorification.


the righteousness of god in the gospel (1)

This is the first of an intermittent series of posts that reflect on aspects of what is involved in the righteousness of God revealed in the gospel.  The subject of God’s righteousness is large and has been the focus of fierce debate in recent years.  These short posts can only hope to be snapshots of  some aspects that I hope will stimulate reflection and worship.
When the gospel speaks of ‘the righteousness of God’ the fact we should note before anything else, before any discussion about imputed righteousness in justification, is that the righteousness in the spotlight is God’s righteousness.  In this respect, Gospel righteousness exists in direct contrast to the righteousness of the Law (or the Sinaic covenant).  In the old covenant the righteousness that was ‘revealed’ was man’s righteousness and not God’s*.  The Law promised blessing of every sort to Israel if the people lived righteously.  It’s  focus was on human righteousness.   The Law revealed what human righteousness looked like.   It was human righteousness that was under the microscope and it was human righteousness that the law, if obeyed, displayed.   Had the law been kept then human righteousness would have been the object of praise and glory for it would have been human righteousness that would have been placarded and achieved life.

Of course, human righteousness did not triumph.  The Law, far from revealing human righteousness, revealed human sin, as God both knew and intended it should (Roms 3).  It could not be otherwise.  It could not be otherwise for human sinfulness is such that even privileged Israel, given every opportunity and incentive possible, could not live righteously; the human heart is inveterately given to rebellion and evil.  It could not be otherwise for God must be God and cannot allow any to glory in his presence.  It is unthinkable that humanity should bring about regeneration and a new heavens and earth and have  occasion to boast that it had been achieved by human righteousness, ingenuity and wisdom.  We do not know God if we have not grasped this elementary fact.  None may glory of their achievement in God’s presence, God alone must be glorious.  No flesh can boast before him; it would be morally incongruous, and repugnant to all right thinking.

1Cor 1:28-31 (ESV2011) God chose what is low and despised in the world, even things that are not, to bring to nothing things that are,so that no human being might boast in the presence of God.  And because of him you are in Christ Jesus, who became to us wisdom from God, righteousness and sanctification and redemption,so that, as it is written, “Let the one who boasts, boast in the Lord.”

Humanity’s failure in righteousness is not only a given predicated on human sinfulness but predicated also on God’s own being and purpose.  No flesh shall glory before God. It cannot, must not, shall not be.  Thus redemption, renewal, and blessing, must come through the gospel for the gospel is a revelation not of the righteousness of man but of God.  God is the actor in the gospel.  It is what he is and does and provides that is in the spotlight.  It is his wisdom, his grace, his righteousness that is on display.  Thus Paul writes of the gospel,

Rom 1:16-17ESV2011 For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek.For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith for faith, as it is written, “The righteous shall live by faith.”

In the gospel, righteousness ‘of God‘ is revealed’.   This is not in the first instance a righteousness from God (though it surely includes this) but God’s own righteous activity.  If I want to see God’s acting righteously (consistently with all he is in himself) then it is to the gospel pre-eminently I must look.  Under Law, God is seen to act righteously when he punishes disobedience (Roms 3:5) but such righteous action is not the kind of righteousness that most precisely reflects his nature.  God is righteous when he judges but judgement is his ‘strange work’.  His righteous judgments are glorious but he does not wish to be simply known as a God who punishes.  Punishment is not where his heart lies.  God has a heart of love that wishes to bless and to be gracious.  It is the glory of his righteousness in grace that reveals his righteousness most perfectly.  At the cross God acts righteously in grace and thus reveals the glory of his heart as it truly is.  He is a God who is slow to judge and quick to bless.  He is not keen to condemn rather he is keen to declare righteous.  He does not desire that any perish but that all come to him and live, thus it is his righteous saving action in the gospel that best displays his heart.  What was perhaps brief and abstract in Romans Ch 1 is unpacked and specified in ch 3

Rom 3:21-26ESV2011 But now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from the law, although the Law and the Prophets bear witness to it—the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe. For there is no distinction:for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,and are justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus,whom God put forward as a propitiation by his blood, to be received by faith. This was to show God’s righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over former sins.It was to show his righteousness at the present time, so that he might be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus.

Note the last lines, ‘This was to show God’s righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over former sins.It was to show his righteousness at the present time, so that he might be just (righteous) and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus.’  Twice we are told the gospel shows (reveals/proves/exhibits/demonstrates/displays) God acting righteously.  It shows he acted righteously in passing over sin in the past.  By his sin-bearing death we now see how forgiveness was possible in the past without God’s mercy compromising his righteous need to punish sin.  We see how ceremonial animal sacrifice was not simply a moral whitewash  but was acceptable because God saw in it a preview of the real sacrifice that would deal with sin – the sacrifice of Christ.  Furthermore, if God forgives in the present and declares a man righteous we see that this is not a fiction but is God acting righteously for it is the only righteous response he can make to the one who believes in Jesus since Jesus’ obedience in death was specifically to provide a basis for God to righteously declare righteous the ungodly. Indeed, in this text the sacrifice of Jesus is God’s doing.  Undoubtedly, Jesus came of his own volition and offered himself, but that is not the point here; the point is that ‘God put Jesus forward as a propitiation by his blood’.  The action is God’s.  He takes the initiative in the provision of righteousness, a righteous initiative.

We could look elsewhere and see how the gospel reveals God acting righteously at the cross in judging sin and in overthrowing Satan.  He acts righteously when he raises Christ from the dead and places him at his right hand in glory for how else could God righteously act when Christ had so glorified him in death (Jn 13:31,32).  Again and again the gospel reveals God acting righteously in blessing.  Thus the gospel glorifies God’s righteousness for it reveals it in action. The gospel is not only God acting wisely, powerfully, graciously, mercifully, and lovingly, it is God acting righteously; the consistency of God’s character to its true nature is seen fully in the confluence of of righteous acts at the cross and the subsequent resurrection to glory of Christ and those united to him, who in turn become ‘the righteousness of God in him’ (2 Cor 5:21). Thus God’s righteousness shines in unrivalled brilliance in the gospel and the eyes of faith see, live, wonder, and worship.

*  We often hear that the Law reveals God’s righteousness.  It doesn’t.  It reveals the standard of righteousness that God demanded of man.  It does not reveal anything about what righteous behaviour in God looks like.  It would be ludicrous to apply these commandments to God (whether the Decalogue or the wider covenant stipulations).  God is not called to love his neighbour as himself.  Righteousness in God is not abstaining from committing adultery or stealing etc.   These are meaningful demands upon the responsible creature (and a sinful one at that) but not the Creator.  Thus the Law reveals the behaviour that God demands of man if he is to be righteous (live consistently with all the relationships he is placed in by God) but it does not reveal God in righteous activity (except when he punishes disobedience), the gospel, however, does.  The law shows the righteous behaviour God demands of man but not what righteousness looks like in him.


preaching about suicide

First of all, a further apology for such a time between posts.  Productivity is likely to remain low over the next couple of months so apologies again in advance.

On a recent Sunday past, a group of students from a nearby Bible College were responsible for our Morning Bible Hour.  Their preacher was a young Dutchman who  spoke ably.  His topic was interesting, indeed arresting.  He spoke in a general and pastoral way on Psalm 23 and made a number of pertinent comments.  He related the Psalm to a very personal and moving account of his young, pregnant sister-in-law’s tragic suicide some three years previously.

The juxtaposing of Psalm 23 and the suicide of a confessing believer in Christ was startling and provocative.

Psalm 23 extols God’s providential care of his people.  David, a literal shepherd in his youth and in his adult life, as King of Israel, a shepherd of a different sort (for kings in Israel were regularly described as shepherds of God’s people), confesses rightly and humbly, ‘the Lord is my Shepherd’.  The Psalm extols the shepherding care of God in David’s life.  Whether in pleasant times (when led by still waters) or difficult dark times (in the valley of the shadow of death) the Lord is his protector and keeper.  David need fear no evil.  Indeed in the very midst of his enemies, when threatened on every side, David’s faith depicts the Lord seating him at a banquet; the Lord’s provision makes a mockery of his enemies and every fearful situation.  David is safe in the epicentre of the storm because the Lord provides abundantly.

The question hangs begging in the air.  Why then did the young Dutchman’s sister-in-law commit suicide?  If God protects his people then why did he not prevent this young mother (and mother-to-be) from self harm?  Where is the God who gives banquets to his troubled and beleaguered people?

It would be a foolish person who did not see that here we are in deep waters.  Deep waters for faith that is.  This kind of topic is neither easy (or safe) to preach or post on for not only is suicide a subject that sends a chill down the spine of most but, more pertinently, who knows whether those who hear or read are themselves contemplating suicide or have a relative who has taken this tragic course. Discoursing on suicide means we must be particularly conscious of our audience.

So what points ought preachers to make when grappling with the subject of suicide of a believer?  Let me suggest a few.

1.  Preachers should stress the need for those who feel suicidal to see their doctor, and soon.  Many suicides arise from clinical depression.  Clinical depression is an illness that drastically skews our thinking.  It is not merely the normal experience of being down in the dumps.    People who are clinically depressed are unable to raise their mood however hard they try.   For whatever reason something has ceased functioning as it ought in their brain or nervous system that results in a mind flooded with dark thoughts and a mood that is deeply depressed and perhaps anxious.  They have a sustained disturbance of mood that is tangible, abnormal, and profoundly affecting their sense of well-being.  Medical attention can help dramatically.  The depression and symptoms can be treated (and significantly alleviated) and the underlying cause diagnosed and tackled.  Clinical depression is pathological; it is an illness and should be recognised as such.

Preachers should stress that just as a heart condition or blood pressure or a broken leg requires medical treatment (and perhaps lifestyle change) so too does clinical depression.  The depressed person is as clinically ill as is the person with say angina.  And while there may be spiritual issues that the illness reveals or creates (as there may be in any illness) the whole story is not likely to be spiritual.  The advice to see their GP soon and speak openly must be clear and unambiguous.  Where symptoms of depression or anxiety are persisting and are moderate to severe in intensity a visit to the doctor is a must and preachers must avoid suggesting the whole matter is spiritual and must be handled at that level.

Let me say it once again, preachers who preach about suicide and depression and other depression related topics must impress, as part of their message, the value of visiting the doctor, to fail to do so is irresponsible.  Medical attention can help dramatically.

2.  Preachers should not pronounce whether the person who has committed suicide is presently in heaven or hell.  They should avoid this for reasons both theological and pastoral.  They should avoid pronouncements for the simple reason that they do not know.  Preachers simply do not have the authority to pontificate for the Bible gives no sure word on this. Preachers have no theological mandate.

At one time the almost uniform view was that no suicide has eternal life.  Nowadays the opposite view prevails.  Preachers tend to fall over themselves to assure those who grieve that their loved one is in heaven. Such diametrically opposing views exist because pastors go beyond what Scripture reveals. On the one hand those in Scripture who commit suicide (like Saul and Judas Iscariot) are hardly comforting company.  It is those faithful unto death who are promised the crown of life (Rev 2:10).  Scripture affirms that it is those who stand firm to the end who are saved (Matt 24:13).  Endurance in faith is a hallmark of the redeemed (Hebs 6:11; Cf Rev 13:10). At the same time, God is not unrighteous and will not forget their work and love (Hebs 6:10).  More could be said here but for brevity’s sake I shall say no more.

Save this…

Pastorally it is disastrous to affirm those who commit suicide will be in heaven.  For the believer in the audience with suicidal thoughts such cavalier assurances act like green lights.  For some, the only brake on suicide is the worry that they may end up somewhere worse.  This is a healthy fear and is no bad deterrent and preachers should not undermine it by pronouncing where they have no word from the Lord.

Where the Bible remains silent we should remain silent.  In this way we avoid encouraging possible suicides or devastating grieving relatives and we stay within the bounds of ‘it is written’.

3.  Preachers should make clear that suicide is always an expression of a collapse of faith.  I imagine I hear shocked protest.  However, we must be blunt and unambiguous.  It is never faith that leads to suicide.  Faith trusts God.  It never gives up.  It never despairs.  It never loses hope.  Faith endures.  Suicide results from a loss of hope.  It flows from despair.  It happens when the pain (emotional or physical) is so great that the person no longer believes the resources are available to cope with it. When pain exceeds pain-coping resources, suicidal feelings are the result.  To believe we have no resources is the essence of unbelief.

Now it may be that the mind which commits suicide is so overwhelmed and distorted that all personal responsibility is gone.  None of us knows – only God knows.

I speak about this subject with some personal insight.  I have known deep depression that created suicidal thoughts.  I know others who have similarly suffered from depression and experienced suicidal thoughts.  In my case, profound and deep though the depression was, insistently mind-altering though it was, I did not lose completely the sense of personal responsibility and accountability. Indeed it was faith asserted when I did not understand and when my mind was screaming otherwise that preserved me.   To have succumbed to suicidal thoughts would only have been possible had I finally (however briefly) abandoned faith.

Perhaps there are depths of depression where such abandonment is inevitable and leave the person without any responsibility for their actions.  I do not know… and neither do you.  What we can say, is whether faith is abandoned knowingly (and so culpably) or otherwise, it is nevertheless abandoned and it is this that frees the person to commit suicide.  Where there is clinging faith there is hope and no suicide.

Of course, the person who commits suicide may have such distorted thinking that he believes he is doing the best/right/believing thing.  He is convinced he is a burden on others etc.  We should be clear (and preachers should make clear)that such ‘convictions’ are not true faith but a deception of Satan.  Again, true faith clings to God and what Scripture has revealed even when the mind and spirit are being swamped by all kinds of deceptive lies.

Again, I ask, is there a point at which the lies become so overwhelming, so compelling, that all personal responsibility is gone?  Only God knows.  But one way or another, either culpably or otherwise, faith has collapsed and the preacher, let me repeat, should make clear that this is the case.  We do none any favours by shielding them from this harsh reality.

This collapse of personal faith by the suicide is what helps us make sense – at least to some extent – of the tension that seems to exist between the announcement of Psalm 23 that God is the shepherd who protects his people and the suicide of a believer.  Why does David feel secure when threatened on every side?  Is it because he is super-brave?  No.  It is because of his faith.  It is because David believes that the Lord is his Shepherd that he is strong in spirit and stands firm.  It his resolve to believe and trust that gives him strength and resilience.  If his faith were to collapse then David would be overwhelmed and crushed.

Yes the Lord keeps his people but he keeps them through faith (Roms 11:30).  It is faith that gives us victory (1 Jn 5:4).  It is the shield of faith that defends us against the fiery destructive darts of Satan (Eph 6).  It is faith that enables us to endure (Hebs 11:27, 12:3; Rev 13:10).  Where there is faith there is endurance and divine keeping and protection.  It is those who trust the Lord promises to keep.  Not those who trusted in the past but those who trust now.  While we trust we are invincible.  When we trust we shall never be put to shame.  It is when we cease to trust we fall and sometimes catastrophically.

Of course, this does not answer all questions.  We are still left asking why the Lord allows faith to collapse.  Why did he allow the Dutch preachers sister-in-law to commit suicide or for that matter the preacher who married my wife and I?  But that question is but one of a whole parcel of such questions.  Why did he allow the young child prayed for and loved to die?  Why did he allow the cancer that took away a loving and needed father?  Why did he allow the pastor to commit adultery?  Why the genocide in Rwanda, the killing fields of Cambodia, the WW2 concentration camps?  Why did he permit Job to lose all that he had?  Indeed the most basic question of all – why did he permit Adam to sin?

To these questions no answer is given.  Such questions are too wonderful for us.  We are but creatures and God alone is the Creator.   In him alone are found the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.  Like Job we may in our confusion and pain question God and even, fools that we are, impugn his righteousness.  But like Job we will finally need to learn that God is God and we are but men.  We will need to hear the Lord say to us tenderly but firmly,

Job 40:1-8 (ESV)
And the Lord said to Job:  “Shall a fault-finder contend with the Almighty? He who argues with God, let him answer it.” … “Dress for action like a man; I will question you, and you make it known to me. Will you even put me in the wrong? Will you condemn me that you may be in the right?

Like Job we will need to humble ourselves and discover that what faith really requires is not answers but a fresh vision of God himself, a fresh realization that God is trustworthy even when we are in the dark, that God is righteous and every man a liar and unrighteous.  Then like Job we will confess,

Job 42:3-6 (ESV)
‘Who is this that hides counsel without knowledge?’ Therefore I have uttered what I did not understand, things too wonderful for me, which I did not know. ‘Hear, and I will speak; I will question you, and you make it known to me.’ I had heard of you by the hearing of the ear, but now my eye sees you; therefore I despise myself, and repent in dust and ashes.”

In Christ, we have a far greater grasp of the ‘godness’ of God than Job had.  We have far more reason to trust unconditionally. And faith does this; it trusts Christ because of all he is and is content to forego understanding in a host of other areas.

The preacher who discusses suicide will want to make this point, and the previous ones, and perhaps others that I have not considered.  Are there any you feel ought to be included?


our extravagant god

To recognize the fulfilment of his [God’s] promises, you must base your expectations not on the minimal but maximal interpretation of their terms’ 

David Gooding An Unshakeable Kingdom (Pg 30)

David Gooding’s small commentary on Hebrews ‘An Unshakeable Kingdom’ is among the finest of its kind on this book.  And it is free for download here along with others he has written!


letting god be god

Rom 9:14-24 (ESV)
What shall we say then? Is there injustice on God’s part? By no means! For he says to Moses, “I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.” So then it depends not on human will or exertion, but on God, who has mercy. For the Scripture says to Pharaoh, “For this very purpose I have raised you up, that I might show my power in you, and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth.” So then he has mercy on whomever he wills, and he hardens whomever he wills.  You will say to me then, “Why does he still find fault? For who can resist his will?” But who are you, O man, to answer back to God? Will what is molded say to its molder, “Why have you made me like this?” Has the potter no right over the clay, to make out of the same lump one vessel for honorable use and another for dishonorable use? What if God, desiring to show his wrath and to make known his power, has endured with much patience vessels of wrath prepared for destruction, in order to make known the riches of his glory for vessels of mercy, which he has prepared beforehand for glory- even us whom he has called, not from the Jews only but also from the Gentiles?

The ultimate truth about God is that he is sovereign.  He acts according to his will and does all, according to his own wisdom, for his own glory.  He is glorified in the display of his power,wrath and mercy, all proclaiming his righteousness, and those who are wise and of faith bow before this and worship.  I repeat, he is God and so does as he wills.  Much could be said about this (including noting that in the text above the emphasis is on his willing to be compassionate), but whatever is said, the bottom revelatory line remains the same – God is God and is answerable to no-one, least of all you and me; he judges us we do not judge him.  God’s ultimate Godness is rooted in his sovereignty and nothing else (not even his love).

To deny God his sovereignty is to deny him his majesty.  It is to deny him his rights as God, the very essence of the sin and unrighteousness that provokes his just wrath (Roms 1: 18-24).  When God awakens us to his majesty, our sin becomes immediately obvious and desperately sinful, his judgements and wrath immediately just, and we throw ourselves upon him for mercy.

If we fail to grasp this is who God is, and a response in fear, awe and self-abasement, before him is absent, then we do not really know the God of the Bible and we will be susceptible to many of the destructive evangelical myths and monsters mentioned in the previous post.

If we are wise, we will ponder this text deeply, and believe.

the cavekeeper

The Cave promotes the Christian Gospel by interacting with Christian faith and practice from a conservative evangelical perspective.


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